Open science as a framework for psychological research
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novi Sad
Open science has become the most important goal in contemporary scientific community, whose achievements would contribute to the visibility of scientific results, significant social and economic benefits, as well as to supporting the development of new research. Psychology provides a significant boost to the development of open science, with a large number of researchers participating in replicability studies, pre-registering their research plans, sharing datsets and creating new scientific research frameworks, such as "citizen science".
Serbian Open Science Platform, adopted by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, requires that Open Access is mandatory for all publications resulting from publicly funded research. The Platform recommends that primary research data should be deposited in open data repositories. Adequate preparation of research data for reuse assumes that the data is findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable. These requirements are known as FAIR data principles. Existing repositories, such as Mendeley, Open Science Framework (OSF), as well as search engines, such as Google Dataset Search or Elsevier DataSearch, are enabling open data management.
A behavioral genetics cross-cultural study can illustrate the usefulness of open data in psychological research. The main objective of this study was to examine the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the Five-Factors Model personality traits across three cultures – Croatian, German and Serbian. German dataset is deposit at GESIS Data Catalogue repository. After signing of the contract about rules for using these data, a license was obtained, and their database was included in the cross-cultural study. Croatian dataset was obtained by personal contact. Participants were 1006 monozygotic (MZ) and 710 dizygotic (DZ) volunteer general-population twin pairs from Croatia, Germany and Serbia. Multivariate twin modelling was used to explore the nature of the phenotypic associations between personality traits in three cultures. Results showed that the relative contributions of additive genetic and nonshared environmental factors to the variance of all FFM dimensions have almost identical pattern in the German, Croatian and Serbian samples, confirming the heritable basis of the personality traits, which are consistent with previous results of behavioral genetic studies. The most important result of this study points to different patterns of common and specific genetic and environmental effects on personality traits as well as different patterns of genetic correlations across the three cultures.
This study demonstrates several key
principles of open science, such as "citizen
science”, reproducibility and data sharing.
Dr Snežana Smederevac je redovni profesor na Odseku za psihologiju Filozofskog fakulteta Univerziteta u Novom Sadu. Predaje psihologiju ličnosti od 2001. godine. Koordinator je sledećih tekućih projekata: Boosting engagement of Serbian Universities in Open Science – Erasmus + KA2 i Nasledni, sredinski i psihološki činioci mentalnog zdravlja – Ministarstvo prosvete, nauke i tehnološkog razvoja. Dobitnik je priznanja „Ljuba Stojić“ koje je Društvo psihologa Srbije dodelilo članovima redakcije časopisa Psihologija (2010) i nagrade „Borislav Stevanović“ koju je Društvo psihologa Srbije dodelilo za naučni doprinos razvoju psihologije u Srbiji (2011). Bila je prorektor za nauku i međunarodnu saradnju na Univerzitetu u Novom Sadu, šef Odseka za psihologiju na Filozofskom fakultetu Univerziteta u Novom Sadu i osnivač i šef Centra za bihejvioralnu genetiku. Član je udruženja the International Society for the Study of Individual Differences i the European Association of Personality Psychology.
approaches in Psychology and Medical sciences
Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
The vast amount of information continuously collected on various behaviours, together with advanced analytic techniques, offers unprecedented opportunity to conduct data-driven research in psychology. From board and online games utilized in understanding basic cognitive mechanisms to unstructured medical records that allow for a better prediction of medication prescription in clinical research, the Big Data approaches are shaping psychological theories and practices. In this talk, I will illustrate how gamified environments and clinical notes can be used to obtain novel insights in normative and nonnormative ageing research.
In the case of
gamified environments, we utilize chess and sports
data to understand the shape of the ageing
function in real-life skills, as well as, factors
that protect against age-related declines in later
stages of career. Building more flexible nonlinear
models, we show how intelligence and practice,
factors typically associated with nature and
nurture, enable the acquisition and retention of
complex skills across the lifespan.
case of clinical data, we use the natural language
processing models to extract the medically
relevant information from electronic health
records. We use Oxfordshire Trust CRIS (Clinical
Record Interactive Search) raw text records that
form a medical picture of over than 150,000
patients of secondary care services in Oxfordshire
county. In the talk, I will present results from
the models that extract information behind
dementia diagnosis: prescribed medication
(acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and memantine)
and cognitive performance scores (MMSE and MOCA).
The extracted data is subsequently modelled to
investigate the effect of medication prescription
on the changes in cognitive performance in the
case of dementia diagnosis.
Dr Nemanja Vaci je postdoktorski istraživač bioinformatike na Departmanu za psihijatriju Univerziteta u Oksfordu, Velika Britanija. U fokusu njegovog rada su napredna analitika i kompleksno modeliranje nestrukturiranih i strukturiranih velikih podataka u psihologiji i medicini. Zainteresovan je za korišćenje informacija uskladištenih u elektronskim zdravstvenim zapisima i britanskim kohortnim podacima za istraživanje modela progresije bolesti u demenciji. Najveći deo njegovog rada podupire efekte stručnosti, znanja i aktivnosti na očuvanje padova u složenim kognitivnim procesima, povezanih sa godinama starosti. Nemanja je doktorirao na Univerzitetu Alpen-Adria u Klagenfurtu u Austriji na temu Modeliranje velikih podataka u psihologiji.